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FUNDAMENTALS OF NETWORKING

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WHAT IS A NETWORK? 

A network is  a group of computers & other devices that are connected by some type of transmission media.

A network can be as small as two computers connected together by a cable or can even be made up of  billions of computers & other devices connected across the world through radio waves, satellites, infra red beams, cable, wireless and even phone lines.

The other devices can be referred to cell phones, personal computers, mainframe computers, printers, scanners, security cameras, vehicles and wearable technology devices.



TYPES OF NETWORK 

  • Local Area Network (LAN)
  • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • Personal Area Network (PAN)


LAN 

LAN is a network that communicates among computer devices within a building, office, factory or a home.  LAN enables the sharing of files and devices when it comes to sharing among multiple users.  It is limited to a few hundred metres and not more.  LAN requires single wiring.  A single cable connecting to a device.  It is a low cost option.  LANs are easy to be design and troubleshoot.

LAN can be either wired or wireless.  Twisted pair, coax or fibre cable can be used in wired LANs.  Every LAN uses a Protocol.  In LAN, all machines are connected to a single cable. What is a protocol??  - A set of rules that governs how packets are configured and transmitted.  

Nodes in a LAN are linked together with a certain topology.  These topologies include BUS, RING, STAR.  LANs are capable of high transmission rates.

THE ADVANTAGES OF LAN NETWORK

High speed

Low cost

High security

Good resource sharing features

THE DISADVANTAGES OF LAN NETWORK

Requires administrative time

File server may fail

Cables may break







MAN

Metropolitan Area Network is a large computer network that spans a city or a large campus.  This network is formed to support a larger geographical area than LAN, ranging from a several blocks of buildings to an entire city.

This network type may be owned or operated by a single organization, but it will be used by many individuals and organizations.  It acts as a high speed network to allow sharing of regional resources.

A MAN can typically cover between 5 and 50 km diameter.

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WAN 

This network type covers a large geographic area such as country, continent or the whole world.  We can even relate WAN with two or more LANs connected together.  Basically, the LANs can be far apart in miles.

With this in mind, in order to cover large distances, WANs may transmit data over leased high speed phone lines or wireless links such as satellites.

Multiple LANs can be connected together using devices such as bridges, routers or gateways which enable them to share data.  The world's popular WAN is the internet.

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PAN

This is a network that is used for communicating among computers and computer devices in close proximity of around a few metres within a room.  It can be used for communicating between devices themselves or for connecting to a larger network such as the internet.

This network can be wired or wireless.

PAN is a network used for communication among computer devices including telephones and personal digital assistants.


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The operating system (OS) used in the network controls how users and programs get access to resources on a network.  Each OS is configured to use one of two models to connect to network resources: the peer-to-peer model or the client server model.

The peer-to-peer model can be achieved using any assortment of desktop, mobile or tablet operating system.  The client server model requires one or more network operating system, which controls access to the entire network.

THE USE OF COMPUTER NETWORK (USAGE)

Business Applications: Online Purchase

Home Applications: Mail, Chat

Mobile users: Laptops, mobile, PDA

Social Media

Sharing Information - ex: Data Communication

Sharing Hardware or Software - ex:print document

Centralize administration & Support - ex: Internet based, so that everyone can access administrative or support application from their computers.


DISTINGUISH BETWEEN LAN, WAN & MAN




FIND OUT THE NETWORK TRANSMISSION MEDIUM BEING USED IN INDUSTRY TODAY. 


NETWORK HARDWARE

Network hardware refers to the physical components that can form an entire network.

We can get some insights on the various network hardware that are current being used in the industry.

Network Cables

This network cable is a transmission media that is used to transfer data from one device to another.A commonly used cable will be RJ - 45 connector.


Routers

A router is a connecting device that transfers data packets between different computer networks.  They are normally used by organizations LAN to a broadband internet connection.  These routers contain RJ - 45 ports to allow network cables to be connected to them.

Repeaters, Hubs & Switches

These hardware are needed to connect network devices together so that they can function as a single segment.

A repeater receives signals and regenerates it before re-transmitting so that it can travel long distances.A hub is a multiport repeater having several input/output ports, so that input at any port will be available at any other port.

A switch receives data from a port, uses packet switching to resolve the destination device and then forwards the data to the particular destination, rather than broadcasting it as a hub.



Bridge

A bridge connects 2 separate Ethernet Network segments.  It forwards packets from the source network to the destined network.

Gateways

A gateway connects entirely different networks that work upon different protocols.  It is an entry and exit point of a network and controls access to other networks.

Network Interface Cards

NIC is a component of a computer to connect it to a networks. There are two types of network cards: Internal Network Cards and External Network Cards






Modem

Access Point



USAGE OF NETWORKS


IEEE NETWORKING SPECIFICATIONS









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